MOTHERS’ ROLE IN COMBATING DISEASES OF CHILDREN.

The especial province of the mother is the prevention of disease, not its cure. When disease attacks the child, the mother has then a part to perform, which it is especially important during the epochs of infancy and childhood should be done well. I refer to those duties which constitute the maternal part of the … Continue reading “MOTHERS’ ROLE IN COMBATING DISEASES OF CHILDREN.”

The especial province of the mother is the prevention of disease, not its cure. When disease attacks the child, the mother has then a part to perform, which it is especially important during the epochs of infancy and childhood should be done well. I refer to those duties which constitute the maternal part of the management of disease.

Medical treatment, for its successful issue, is greatly dependent upon a careful, pains-taking, and judicious maternal superintendence. No medical treatment can avail at any time, if directions be only partially carried out, or be negligently attended to; and will most assuredly fail altogether, if counteracted by the erroneous prejudices of ignorant attendants. But to the affections of infancy and childhood, this remark applies with great force; since, at this period, disease is generally so sudden in its assaults, and rapid in its progress, that unless the measures prescribed are rigidly and promptly administered, their exhibition is soon rendered altogether fruitless.

The amount of suffering, too, may be greatly lessened by the thoughtful and discerning attentions of the mother. The wants and necessities of the young child must be anticipated; the fretfulness produced by disease, soothed by kind and affectionate persuasion; and the possibility of the sick and sensitive child being exposed to harsh and ungentle conduct, carefully provided against.

Again, not only is a firm and strict compliance with medical directions in the administration of remedies, of regimen, and general measures, necessary, but an unbiased, faithful, and full report of symptoms to the physician, when he visits his little patient, is of the first importance. An ignorant servant or nurse, unless great caution be exercised by the medical attendant, may, by an unintentional but erroneous report of symptoms, produce a very wrong impression upon his mind, as to the actual state of the disease. His judgment may, as a consequence, be biased in a wrong direction, and the result prove seriously injurious to the welldoing of the patient. The medical man cannot sit hour after hour watching symptoms; hence the great importance of their being faithfully reported. This can alone be done by the mother, or some person equally competent.

There are other weighty considerations which might be adduced here, proving how much depends upon efficient maternal management in the time of sickness; but they will be severally dwelt upon, when the diseases with which they are more particularly connected are spoken of.

EXPOSURE OF INFANTS TO OPEN AIR

The respiration of a pure air is at all times, and under all circumstances, indispensable to the health of the infant. The nursery therefore should be large, well ventilated, in an elevated part of the house, and so situated as to admit a free supply both of air and light. For the same reasons, the room in which the infant sleeps should be large, and the air frequently renewed; for nothing is so prejudicial to its health as sleeping in an impure and heated atmosphere. The practice, therefore, of drawing thick curtains closely round the bed is highly pernicious; they only answer a useful purpose when they defend the infant from any draught of cold air.

The proper time for taking the infant into the open air must, of course, be determined by the season of the year, and the state of the weather. “A delicate infant born late in the autumn will not generally derive advantage from being carried into the open air, in this climate, till the succeeding spring; and if the rooms in which he is kept are large, often changed, and well ventilated, he will not suffer from the confinement, while he will, most probably, escape catarrhal affections, which are so often the consequence of the injudicious exposure of infants to a cold and humid atmosphere.” If, however, the child is strong and healthy, no opportunity should be lost of taking it into the open air at stated periods, experience daily proving that it has the most invigorating and vivifying influence upon the system. Regard, however, must always be had to the state of the weather; and to a damp condition of the atmosphere the infant should never be exposed, as it is one of the most powerful exciting causes of consumptive disease. The nurse-maid, too, should not be allowed to loiter and linger about, thus exposing the infant unnecessarily, and for an undue length of time; this is generally the source of all the evils which accrue from taking the babe into the open air.

WHAT TO DO WHEN YOUR KIDS CRY ?


Crying is a physiological process in the life of a baby.All normal babies cry to communicate with others.Sine they can’t express their feelings in words crying is the only way for communication. If any uncomfortable feeling comes they simply cry.Normally babies cry in situations like hunger,wetting,too heat or cold,tight cloaths,pain ect. Some kids need the presence of somebody otherwise will cry simply.Crying without any cause is habitual in some babies. Eventhough crying is considered as normal it may worry the family members.Since the reasons for crying ranges from simple causes to serious causes it should not be ignored and hence exact cause has to be identified and managed accordingly.



The following are some points which should be considered while dealing with a crying baby.



1, It is dangerous to shake the baby vigorously.



2,Tight cloaths can cause irritation hence it should be removed.



3,If the room is hot put the fan and open the windows.



4,If the nappy is wet remove it and after cleaning the parts make it dry with a soft towel.



5,Pat her back or stroke her head slowly and let her here your soothing sound.



6,Give breast milk and make her quiet.



7,If the climate is cold cover her in soft towel.



8,Rock her gently in your arms and walk slowly in the room.



9,Take a music making doll and let her listen.



10,Try a pacifier or help her for thumb sucking.



11,If no response change her position.



12,Walk outdors with her.



13,Put her on the cradle and rock gently.



14,If no response ask somebody to carry the baby.




Even after all these steps the baby goes on crying see for the following signs.


( Probable cause is given after every sign)



1,Press her abdomen gently,she may twist or resist you:—Colic



2,Pull her ear gently she may become worse or push your hands away:—Earache.



3,Feel her temperature with the back of your hands:–Fever due to any infection.



4,Examine the skin from head to foot:–Eruptive disease,nappy rash,measles,vesicles,allergy ect.



5,See the nose for any discharge:–Coryza.



6,Move the head gently to feel any neck stiffness:–Meningitis,head injury ect.



7,Keep your ear near her chest to hear any rattling sound:–Increased mucus in wind pipes.


(pneumonia,bronchiolitis,asthamatic bronchitis ect)


8,Examine the anal orifice:–Anal erosion,rectal polyp,crawling of worms.



9,Examine the genitalia:–Any discharge or erosion.



10,In male baby see the testicles which may be swollen or tender:–Orchitis,torsion of testes.



11,also notice the body movements and see for any convulsions,rigors,vomiting,cough,laboured breathing ect.



If you see the above signs or any other abnormal signs consult your doctor for proper treatement.

CRYING BABY – REASONS.

Introduction:

Crying is a normal event in the lives of all babies.When a baby comes out of the woomb the first thing to do is crying.By the first cry he will take some air in to the lungs for the first time in their life.After delivery if the baby doesnot cry then it should be initiated by slightly pinching or gently strocking the feet.From this it is clear that the healthy baby should cry and it is a normal physiological event ,still some times it can upset the mother or family members.

We all know that a baby can’t tell his needs or troubles in words. The only way for him to communicate with others is by crying.Babies show some other signs like feet kicking,hand waving and head turning ect.But the best way to take the attention of others is by crying.

Excessive crying may not have a firm definition because the crying habit changes from baby to baby and some babies can be calmed easily but some are difficult to sooth.If crying is distressing for the mother and home nurse it can be called excessive.Many a times baby become quiet by giving breast milk or by carrying with a gentle rocking.Sudden onset of excessive crying means baby is distressed and needs attention.The causes of crying extends from simple reasons to life threatening conditions.Hence crying of a baby should not be ignored.

Most of the time it is difficult to find the cause of the cry .Common causes are discussed here for awareness.

Common reasons for crying:

1,Hunger:–

A hungry baby will cry till he gets the milk. Here the old saying comes true’crying baby gets the milk’.

2,Wetting:–

Urination and defecation causes some discomfort and results in crying till his parts are cleaned and made dry .

3,Company:–

Majority of the kids need somebody near. If they feel lonely they cry.When their favourite doll slips away from the grip they cry for help.

4,Tired:–

When the baby is tired after a journey and unable to sleep just cry simply.They feel tired in uncomfortable sourroundings and due to unhealthy climate.

5,Heat & cold:–

If they feel too hot or too cold they become restless and cry. Child is comfortable in a room with good ventilation.

6,Tight cloathing:–

Tight cloaths especially during warm climate is intolerable for kids.Tight elastic of the the dress can also produce soreness in the hip region.

7,Dark room:–

When the baby wakes up from sleep he needs some dim light.If there is darkness he will disturb the sleep of parents by crying.Ofcourse he will be irritated by strong light resulting in cry.

8,Mosquito:–

Yes,these creatures disturb the sleep by their blood sucking and make the baby to cry.

9,Nasal blocking:–

Child may not be able to sleep when there is a cold and go on crying till the passage is open.

10, Phlegm in throat:–

This also causes difficult breathing resulting in cry.Often a typical sound can be heard with each breath.

11,General aching:–

Generalised body ache with restlessness is seen in flu and prodromal stages of some infectious diseases can result in continuous cry.

12,Habitual cry:—Some babies cry without any real cause ending the parents in agony.Many a times doctor is called for help.

13,Nappy rash:– If a tight and wet nappy is kept for a long time results in this conditon.

Rash can also be due to some allergic reaction to the elastic material of the nappy. When the rash appears it causes soreness and baby become sleepless and cry. All other skin lesions like eczema,ecthyma ,candidiasis ect also causes same problems.

14,Earache:–

Ear infection is common in wet climate.The infection may spread from the throat.Ear infection can result in rupture of ear drum causing discharge of pus.Eareache usually becomes worse at night when lying down.Child will become restless with cry and may not allow you to touch the ear.Some children with earache rub the affected ear frequently.

15,Colic:–

When the baby cry continuously most of us diagnose it as colic.This roblem is still a topic for debate because exact cause for colic is not known and diagnosis is also difficult to confirm.Colic may be associated with rumbling and distention of abdomen.Child often feels better when lying on abdomen.Some children may not allow you to touch the abdomen.If the child cries continuously doctors help is needed.

16,Infections:–

All infections causes some kind of pain or irritation resulting in cry.Infection may be anywhere in the body.Usually it is associated with fever, redness and swelling.

17,Reactions to certain food:–

It is said that one man’s food is another man’s poison. Some food articles can produce some allergic reactions.Allergy is manifested in the form of redness, breathlessness,gastric symptons and continuous cry.

18,Hard stools:–

Constipated babies with hard stools may cry when they get the urge for stool.Some children hesitate to pass stool because of pain .

19,Gastro esophagial reflex:–

Here baby cries with spilling of food after feeding.If this continues it may be due to gastroesophageal reflex.This is due to failure of the lower part of esophagus to close after food causing regurgitation from the stomach.It is difficult to diagnose this condition and can be confirmed by giving antireflex medicines.

20, Dentition:–

During dentition child becomes restless with crying.Often associated with gastric troubles and diarrhoea.

Some rare reasons

—————–

1,Bowel obstruction:–

Bowel obstruction is associated with severe pain and vomiting.Abdomen is distended with rumbling sound.Baby is constipated with absence of flatus.

2,Septicemia:–

Invasion of pathogenic micro organisms in to the blood is called septicemia.Fever is associated with this condition.

3,Torsion of testes in male kids:–

When a male baby cries continuously his scrotum should be examined.Torsion of the testes produce severe pain which will be worse by touching the affected testes.When the testes is pressed upwards pain is releived.If this is not treated properly it can damage the affected testes due to lack of blood supply.

4,Meningitis:–

Initially there may not be fever,hence crying baby with alternate vacant stare and irritability should not be ignored.Fontanel is bulging. Neck rigidity and seizures may appear later.

5,Retention of urine:–

Children with retention of urine will have agonising pain making them restless.

7,Major injuries:–

Major injury to any parts of the body causes pain.Occasionally children will fall while arrying and results in head injury.Head injury is associated with reflex vomiting and convulsions.